Frequency of writing and reading disorders in acute stroke patients

Sanela Zukic, Osman Sinanovi?, Mirjana Vidovi?, Zamir Mrkonji?


Background Writing and reading disorders usually followed aphasias but frequency of acalculia, agraphia and alexia are not often studied.

The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of these language disorders in acute stroke patients, and determine their relation to the type of stroke (ischemic/hemorrhagic) and lesion site (left/right hemisphere).

Methods It was analyzed 194 consecutive patients with acute first-ever stroke, hospitalized at the Department of Neurology, University Clinical Center Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina. For clinical assessment of alexia, agraphia and acalculia it was used Minnesota Test for Differential Diagnosis of Aphasia`s.

Results The patients were evaluated in the first week of stroke onset, and 59 (30.40%) of them had alexia, agraphia and acalculia in different combinations of these disorders. The frequency of alexia, agraphia and acalculia among patients with stroke in the left (dominant) hemisphere was significantly higher (55.9%), comparing to those with right hemisphere stroke (37.7%) (χ2= 4.003; p=0.045).

In 170 subjects with ischemic stroke, there were 53 (31.1%) cases of alexia, agraphia and acalculia, and 6 (42.8%) cases among 14 subjects with hemorrhagic stroke. There were no significant difference in frequency of alexia, agraphia and acalculia between hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke (χ2 =0.363; p=0.394).

Conclusion Results from this study provided evidence that alexia, agraphia and acalculia are frequent among stroke patients, presenting itself in one third of stroke cases. These language disorders were more common in patients with left hemisphere stroke, but there was no significant difference in dependency of type of stroke.



alexia, agraphia, acalculia, acute stroke, language disorders

DOI: 10.5457/ams.v42i1.331