CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILDHOOD DIFFICULTIES IN BREATHING SYNDROME
Introduction: Syndrome of difficulties in breathing has an important position in pathology of childhood. It is manifested as in diseases of respiratory tract so in series of diseases and pathological conditions linked to other organs and systems. Patients and Methods: Patient with difficulties in breathing develops clinical presentation of respiratory distress, which is characterized with many different clinical symptoms and signs. Acute respiratory failure with discrepancy between utility of oxygen and produces of carbon dioxide is the last point of respiratory distress, so the primary care of clinician is quickly recognition of abnormal blood gasses values. Early identification and appropriate treatment of incoming respiratory failure is essential for good prognosis and decreasing long term complications. The aim of this paper was to analyze retrospectively histories of diseases of children treated at the Department of Intensive care Pediatrics clinic in Tuzla and to establish type and frequency of diseases characterized with syndrome of difficult breathing, frequency of non-respiratory diseases in etiology of this syndrome, and to estimate correlation of clinical findings in admission with pulse oximetry and blood gases findings. Analysis was based on population of patients treated at the Department of Intensive care unit Pediatrics clinic in Tuzla with recorded, clinically manifested syndrome of difficult breathing. Patient selection was performed consecutively from January 1st till 31st December 2006. All selected patients were from Tuzla Canton. Source of data for this investigation was Admission protocol for Pediatric Clinics and Intensive care unit protocol and personal histories of children treated at the Intensive care unit of Pediatric Clinics January 1st till 31st December 2006. Method of work was retrospective study which analyzed anamnestic data, clinical and laboratory findings, therapeutical procedures and length of hospitalization at the Intensive care unit and outcome of the treatment. Results: The results of investigation demonstrated that in anlized period (from January 1st till 31st December 2006) in Pediatric Clinic, Tuzla a total number of 3932 children were treated, out of them 767 (19.5%) children were treated at the Department of Intensive care unit. Syndrome of difficulties in breathing was recorded in 608 patients (79.3%). The biggest number of children in this group were treated for syndrome of broncho-obstruction, total of 332 children (54.6%). Other large group was neurological disorders: convulsions and epilepsy, total number of 125 patients (20.6%). Out of total number of patients 11 (1.8%) suffered from complete failure of breathing and required mechanical ventilation support. Out of this number 10 of them were chronic ill patients. The most common causal factor for respiratory insufficiency in strict meaning of this word and endangering respiratory arrest was epileptic attack and recidivated pneumonia. Discussion: Clinical findings, pulse oximetry and blood gases analysis were in correlation and in favor of hypoxemic type of respiratory insufficiency. Results of gas analysis for group of neurological disorders and poisoning spoke in favor of acute hypercapnic respiratory insufficiency. Clinical parameters for dyspnea were absent and finding of pulse oximetry monitored isolated for these disorders demonstrated partly unreliable.
Syndrome of difficulties in breathing, etiology, pulse oximetry, blood gases analysis, childhood