Presence of heavy metals in the soil of urban areas of Lukavac and Kalesija and malignant disease prevalence
The development of industry, agriculture, transport and urbanization has resulted in excessive emissions of heavy metals into the environment, which due to their bioaccumulative properties express negative effects on the environment and living organisms as a whole. In this work the presence of heavy metals in the soil samples of the urban area of Lukavac and Kalesija municipality and their effect on the health of the population were studied. Soil samples were collected in October 2017 at five locations in the urban area of Lukavac municipality and two urban locations in Kalesija municipality. Concentrations of chromium (Cr) copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in the soil samples were determined. The results indicated that in some locations the concentration of heavy metals exceeded the maximum permissible concentration (MPC). MPC value for chromium was exceeded at four locations in the urban area of Lukavac, whereas MPC value for nickel and cadmium was exceeded at all locations. In Kalesija, MPC value was exceeded for chromium and nickel at one location, while cadmium MPC was exceeded at both locations.
The negative impact of heavy metals on the health of the population is the cause of many malignant diseases. Statistical analysis of the number of patients with malignant diseases in the area of the Lukavac and Kalesija revealed significantly higher prevalence of malignant diseases of the lungs, breast, skin and cervix in the Lukavac (p<0,05) in comparisson to Kalesija municipality.